Singh, No. 2 behind the absent Woods in the playoff standings, followed his opening 75 with a 71 to finish at 4 over four strokes off the cut line.
Seeking his second straight Westchester Country Club victory and fourth overall, the 44-year-old Fijian also missed the cut two weeks ago in the PGA Championship. He last missed consecutive cuts at the end of the 2005 season.
"In one way I'm disappointed, but in another I'd rather be out there working on my game than just trying to play here and playing poorly," Singh said. "So, I'm looking forward to the next few days, because I can go home and practice and fix my game.
"It's close, but it needs to be closer. I'm going to be ready come next week."
Singh finished the regular season 11,445 points behind Woods, but that margin was cut to 1,000 when the points were re-set entering The Barclays.
Two other players in the top 10 in the standings No. 8 Charles Howell III and No. 9 Brandt Snedeker also missed the cut. Howell shot two 75s. Snedeker, coming off his first PGA Tour victory Sunday in the Wyndham Championship, had rounds of 72 and 73.
ELIMINATED: Ten players were eliminated from the playoffs Friday, leaving 130 in the running for the $10 million deferred prize.
The top 120 after The Barclays will be eligible for the Deutsche Bank Championship next week in Norton, Mass. The field will then be cut to 70 for the BMW Championship in Lemont, Ill., and to 30 for the Tour Championship at East Lake in Atlanta.
No. 122 Alex Cejka missed the cut along with No. 124 John Merrick, No. 136 Billy Andrade, No. 137 Anders Hansen, No. 138 Jesper Parnevik, No. 140 Shigeki Maruyama, No. 141 Michael Putnam, No. 142 Bob Tway and No. 144 Jeff Gove, while No. 135 Tripp Isenhour withdrew because of back pain after nine holes Friday.
No. 126 Jason Bohn (rib injury) and No. 133 Ryan Palmer (family illness) dropped out of the playoffs before the tournament started. No. 130 Gavin Coles withdrew during the first round because of back pain. No. 59 Bernhard Langer is skipping the series.
Four players No. 121 Doug LaBelle II, No. 127 Johnson Wagner, No. 128 Jason Dufner and No. 132 Bob Heintz made the cut by a stroke to avoid elimination.
HAPPY BIRTHDAY: Rich Beem opened his entertaining media session with a round of "Happy Birthday" to himself on his 37th birthday.
The 2002 PGA Championship winner, two strokes behind leader K.J. Choi after rounds of 64 and 68, is 134th in the FedEx Cup standings, with only the top 120 advancing to the Deutsche Bank Championship.